Written by: Richard Xu, Caleb Ng, Carmen Chau, and Jeffrey Lau


The majority of us have probably experimented with dropping multiple sugary, round mentos into a bottle filled to the brim with coke. A large fountain of coke then comes rushing out, oftentimes multiple metres in the air, causing a sticky mess all over the place. It’s a fascinating experiment that can get young students interested in science, but we over here at Quantum Outreach have long pondered about the science behind this phenomenon. What properties do coke and mentos have that enable them to react so vigorously with each other? …

Written by: Daksh Verma, Richard Xu, Caleb Ng, Carmen Chau, Jeffrey Lu, Clement Li, Andrew Xia


In light of Halloween 2020, despite COVID-19 forcing many children to stay indoors, and to not partake in trick-or-treating festivities, Quantum Outreach has decided to pay tribute to two of the most iconic monsters in horror: zombies and Frankenstein. In the Halloween Special, we will explore the concept of resurrection through the lens of science and biology.

A group of zombies in a zombie apocalypse (Source: Gene Page/AMC)


In 1818, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley published Frankenstein, a Gothic horror and science fiction novel. In the novel, Victor Frankenstein, who is a “mad scientist”, is a Swiss natural science student. Using alchemy, chemistry and electricity, he was able to bring a monster from…

Written by: Daksh Verma, Richard Xu, Caleb Ng, Carmen Chau, Jeffrey Lu

Have you ever wondered how online shopping works? How do shops receive your credit card information? Is your information transmitted securely? What algorithm is in place to prevent hackers from taking your information? If you have ever shared anything of value via the internet, these questions may flood your mind, but be comforted for RSA Cryptography, your internet best friend, is here to make sure no pesky third-parties steal your data.


RSA is an encryption algorithm. You can think of encryption as a format or a certain coding pattern that helps encrypt your message (ex: replace all “a” with a…

Written by: Daksh Verma, Richard Xu, Andrew Xia, Clement Li

When you hear the name “Albert Einstein” what do you think about? Do you think about his contributions to mathematics and sciences such as E=mc² or the theory of relativity? Or do you think of a genius, possibly one of the smartest men who walked this earth? Or do you think about what hair products he used to get his hair to become the epitome of chaos? Behind the brilliant scientific mind of Einstein, lies another intriguing personality. Regardless, here are 10 Fun Facts about Einstein that you might have never known about.


Perhaps one of the better known obscure…

Written by: Daksh Verma, Richard Xu, Caleb Ng, Jeffrey Lu, Carmen Chau

1. Ophiocordyceps unilateralis (also known as the “zombie ant fungus”) is a fungal parasite that infects and manipulates formicine ants to achieve its only goal: Reproduction by dispersal (Lu, 2019). This fungus usually infects ants of the Camponotini tribe. There are approximately 1.5 million species of this fungus, however less than 100,000 have been described (Evans, Elliot, & Hughes, 2011).

Image of a dead ant with O. unilateralis growing out of the base of its head. The orange bulb contains spores that are released to infect more ants. Image via David P. Hughes, Penn State University.

2. Ophiocordyceps unilateralis is typically found in tropical environments such. as tropical forests. It is abundant in regions like Thailand, Brazil, Central America and Africa. …

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